Question 1 1.Edna is a 42-year-old mother of two girls. She has been feeling very sluggish lately and finds it hard to get out of bed in the morning, even after a full night’s sleep. She is fatigued throughout the day and has to compensate with a lot of caffeine. She’s gained about 5 pounds this month, but attributes that to all the workouts she’s been skipping lately. Her partner keeps noticing and mentioning how cold Edna’s hands are, even though it is the middle of summer. Edna sees her doctor to find out what is wrong. Her physician takes her vital signs before doing further testing. Here are her results: BP 124/74, Pulse 52, Temperature 98.2 F, Height 5’8”, and Weight 178 pounds. Edna’s doctor is worried about her endocrine function. Which of the following glands is most likely causing her symptoms? Pineal gland Thyroid gland Thymus gland Adrenal gland Question 2 1.Edna’s symptoms are similar to those present in Grave’s disease. True False Question 3 1.During Edna’s physical exam, her physician notes an enlargement of her thyroid gland. What is this called and why is it important in her case?Question 4 1.Edna’s physician suspects that she may have hypothyroidism. Which of the following tests would be the first step to help confirm that diagnosis?ThyroidectomyUltrasound of the thyroidBlood test for thyroxine and TSH levelsFine needle biopsyQuestion 5 1.Edna’s test results showed that her T4 level was below normal. Why might her TSH level be elevated?Question 6 1.If Edna’s condition goes untreated, she may experience more severe symptoms. List 3 symptoms (other than those given in her history) that often accompany untreated hypothyroidism.Question 7 1.Which of the following is the most likely and effective form of treatment for Edna’s condition?Dietary changes, including elimination of caffeineThyroidectomyTwo week prescription of thyroid medicationLife-long oral medication, such as levothyroxineQuestion 8 1.Why would Edna’s doctor inquire about her iodine intake? (Explain why iodine is pertinent in this case and how it affects the thyroid.)Question 9 1.If Eda is prescribed a synthetic thyroid medication, which of the following would be a sign that her dosage is too high?Weight gainDecrease basal metabolic rateCold intoleranceAnxietyQuestion 10 1.If Edna’s symptoms are related to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, should her daughters be concerned about their own thyroid health? Why or why not? Question 11 1.Elaine just turned 50 years old and had all of the recommended screening tests at her annual physical. She was surprised to learn that she had an abnormal blood glucose result. She has had blood sugar tests in the past and her results were always within normal limits. Her doctor asked her to follow-up with further testing. Elaine’s doctor wants to know more about her family history of endocrine disorders. Why would her physician ask her about this? Question 12 1.Which of the following fasting blood glucose results would be considered normal?54 mg/dl76 mg/dl102 mg/dl126 mg/dlQuestion 13 1.Given Elaine’s history of normal blood glucose tests, it is most likely that she had Diabetes Mellitus Type I. True False Question 14 1.Elaine’s nurse explains that her follow-up appointment will include a fasting blood glucose test. Why is it important to fast before her blood draw? How does this help diagnose diabetes?Question 15 1.After her abnormal test results, Elaine’s physician asks more questions about her history. Which of the following would NOT be related to a diagnosis of diabetes?PolycythemiaPolyphagiaPolyuriaPolydipsiaQuestion 16 1.If Elaine is diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus Type II, which of the following is NOT true?If she does not treat her condition, she could develop metabolic ketoacidosis.Her body cells have likely become insulin resistant.She will need to make lifestyle changes, including changes to her diet and exercise routine.Insulin injections will likely be required.Question 17 1.What is a glucose tolerance test? Explain briefly how this test works and what it is used for.Question 18 1.Insulin is responsible for which of the following functions?Increases sugar levels in bloodstreamStimulating the breakdown of fat and proteins into glucoseStimulates the breakdown of glycogen to glucoseTransports glucose into cellsQuestion 19 1.The pancreas secretes glucagon when the body is in a state of hyperglycemia. True False Question 20 1.Elaine’s doctor recommends supplementing her lifestyle changes with medication. Which of the following statements is true regarding diabetes treatment?Diabetes Mellitus Type II is always treated with insulin injections.For patients with insulin resistance, medication to increase cell sensitivit can reverse the problem.Medication to stop the pancreas from producing insulin is effective.Even though Elaine’s symptoms are mild, her doctor will recommend a permanent insulin pump because of her age.