What impact does the changing nature of crime have on criminology?
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reply to 3 students using 90 words or more and ADD a direct question to each reply.Ensure each name is with its corresponding reply.1st Student Skyler RichardsonQuestion 1The changing nature of crime has drastic changes on criminology. To prove this point, it is imperative to look at how crime is defined, how crime has changed, and the resulting impact on the field of criminology.One important consideration is what should society consider to be a ‘crime’. The general definition is any act that can be prosecuted (Crime, n.d.). This is an important distinction as it demonstrates the wide encompasses that crime covers. Certain offenses are readily considered criminal acts, and have remain unchanged through the test of time; For example, offenses such as theft and homicide. Human civilization has been dealing with theft of property and crimes against person throughout history. But how has the definition of ‘crime’ changed in society? Entire civilizations have even gone to war due to another group stealing something of value from another or committing violent acts against each other. However, what society considers to be prohibited acts has changed over time, and crime is a dynamic construct. Therefore, criminology has to also be dynamic. This week’s reading presented several different theories on what factors drive crime. As researchers study crime as a whole, new ways of committing crime surface, and potentially the development of criminological new theories.A great example is the foreboding field of cybercrime. Due to advances in technology, the need for criminologists to study the impact of technology on crime is necessary. Criminologists have been studying how technology impacts crime and the crimes committed by using technology. This is a great example of how changes in crime directly impact the field of criminology. As previously mentioned, civilization has been dealing with theft since the beginning of time. As society has evolved into the age of computers, malicious actors have found ways to exploit people using computers, and the studies of cybercrime were born. Cybercrime is crime committed on computers (Cybercrime, n.d.). No longer are the days requiring a thief to physically have contact with a tangible good or service. In the field of cybercrime, theft also includes data stored by a company, or personally identifiable information of a person. The losses from what previously was considered a standard larceny offense have been far surpassed by losses sustained by victims of identity theft (Chou, 2017). One theory in criminology revolves around the commission of the crime being based upon a calculation of risk versus benefit (Barlow & Kauzlarich, 2010). The Internet allows people to more or less have a sense of anonymity, which contributes to calculus of the act being low risk. Presently, most major retailers have online commerce platforms where people put their financial and other personally identifiable information on these platforms. This wealth of accessible information is a high reward for the cybercriminal (Taylor, et al., 2011, as cited in Neira, 2016, p.3). One theory in the field of criminology explains larceny as being committed by those members of the population with a low socio-economic status. This may still be true with cyber crime, however, the motives are usually different. As cited by Neira, some of the motives of cybercriminals include “pure economic desire” (p.6), revenge (p. #), and addiction (p. 10).In conclusion, crime has changed and so has criminology based upon necessity. In order to understand crime, the need for criminology arose. To continue to be relevant, criminology must make advancements with the crime it seeks to study.ReferencesBarlow, Hugh D. Explaining crime : a primer in criminological theory / Hugh Barlow and DavidKauzlarich. p. cm.Chou, James C. “Cybersecurity, Identity Theft, and Standing Law: A Framework for Data Breaches Using Substantial Risk in a PostClapper World,” American University National Security Law Brief, Vol. 7, No. 1 (). Available at: http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/nslb/vol7/iss1/3Cybercrime (n.d.) In Merrian-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/cybercrimeNeira, R. E. (2016). IDENTITY THEFT: INSIDE THE MIND OF A CYBERCRIMINAL (Master’s Capstone, Utica College, 2016) (pp. 1-4). Arbor, MI: ProQuest.Online (n.d.) In Merrian-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/crimeQuestion 2Criminological research can impact social policy by presenting the causes (or correlations) to crime. This information can be used to have conversations within the community about actions that may be taken to minimize the level of crime.One of the theories in social factors affecting crime is dealing with the issue of race as it pertains to poverty. The U.S. is a capitalist society with money generally being used to measure where a person measures hierarchically. But, as theorized in the field of criminology, poverty is correlated with crime rates. According to the U.S. Census Bureau in 2005, African American and Hispanic persons were two times more likely to live in poverty (Warren, 2010). One of ways Warren (2010) discusses combating the issue of economic inequality is education. The inequality of education among races has been present in society for many years. During the Jim Crow Era, the inequality was a social policy constructed by means of laws designed to keep the races segregated. After the abolishment of Jim Crow, the equality of schools improved, however, the inequality still exists. It is common knowledge in urban areas, races are still separated based on gaps in wages. For this reason, it is not uncommon to find neighborhoods that are predominantly one race over other races. The school someone attends typically depends on the area of town they grew up in. Naturally, if someone grows up in an impoverished neighborhood, the school will likely have minimal resources. The lack of funding for the school certainly affects the quality of education. The inequality of education continues the cycle of poverty, and the cycle of crime remains unchanged. This issue is hotly debated in the U.S. politics as there are differing views between conservative and liberal domains on how to establish equality between races. As reported by Lynn Woolsey (2010), there have been various historical changes within the workforce. These changes have an effect on the structure of families, which in turn affects the upbringing of children. Woolsey mentions a problem with how our social policy deals with balance of work life and family life, and states social policy makers could do better. As evidence of the need for improvement, Woolsey explains how the U.S. lags behind other countries on issues which could promote better work balance. Additionally, Woolsey makes a good point. Some of the privileges enjoyed by families with economic advantage, are the disadvantage of families with economic disadvantage. One specific issue cited is in regards to affording child care (Woolsey, 2010). Those in a state of poverty are forced further into poverty by the lack of affordable childcare or other social policies governing employers maintaining flexible workplaces.In conclusion, criminological research has identified several key factors influencing crime, to include: social inequality and economic inequality. This information from criminology can be used in the creation and execution of social policy to positively influence crime. For example, policy makers can champion policies designed to narrow the wage gap, such as, providing resources to impoverished school districts, championing after school programs to lessen the burden on working families in securing child care, paying teachers more, championing life skills programs to assist youth in securing valuable life skills such as preparing for college or seeking other trade craft to better secure higher paying jobs. These programs could possibly assist disadvantaged people in the ease of social mobility.ReferencesWarren, P. (2010). Inequality by design: The connection between race, crime, victimization, and social policy. Criminology & Public Policy, 9(4), 715–720. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9133.2010.00664.xWoolsey, Lynn. May, 2010). IN THIS ISSUE: RECONSIDERING CULTURE AND POVERTY; SPECIAL EDITORS: DAVID J. HARDING, MICHELE LAMONT, MARIO LUIS SMALL: Reflections on Culture and Poverty: Culture, Poverty, and Effective Social Policy. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 629, 220. Retrieved from https://advance-lexis-com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/api/document?collection=analytical-materials&id=urn:contentItem:502M-VFR0-00CV-J04C-00000-00&context=1516831.2nd Student Justin NemoirWhat impact does the changing nature of crime have on criminology?When you look back at all the different time periods throughout our history, crime rates have never stayed the same. They are always fluctuating and no matter what anyone does, they will always fluctuate. The reason behind this is because there is not one thing that anyone can do to end all crime. There will always be crime because every person in the world is different and their beliefs are different. Some people believe the crime that they our committing is justified and that they our doing nothing wrong. Also, another contribution to this belief is age gap between human beings. “There are two crime trends in America – one for the youth – one for the mature – which our moving in opposite directions.” (LaFree, Bursik, Short & Taylor, 2000, p. 20) The reason for this in today’s society is that the younger population want to start protests and if they turn violent, they are okay with it because they want to make law enforcement agencies understand the injustice that is occurring. This quote from the reading is very prevalent in today’s society because of all the riots that are happening around America. In every state, the protesters that turn to rioting are the younger generation because they believe that if the cop can get away with doing something that is illegal then why should they have to obey the law. They feel since there is no justice, why should there be peace. On the other hand, you have peaceful protests in America of people walking, and taking a knee, or laying on the ground and not causing any disruption. These kinds of protests are mainly led by the mature population because they want law enforcement agencies to look further into their departments and stop the injustice. They understand that two wrongs do not make a right. These two different groups will never cross the same path because there is no middle ground when it comes to this issue. Younger groups believe that violence is the answer to this, to justify the actions that were unjust, and the mature crowd does no condemn the actions of the younger generation. Another example of this, is what happened after hurricane Katrina in New Orleans. The local police teamed up with the National guard to try and control the looters who are roaming the streets causing violence (Chunn & Menzies, 2006, p. 672). Doing this is to help maintain order and control the actions caused by the looters, destroying building and ruining businesses. Looking at it through the scope that individuals are not participating in the protests, they feel that it is a good thing and will help maintain peace. Looking at it through the scope of individuals participating in the protests, it shows that their government is scared of what they are doing and are trying to turn against them and start a war. By this being done, it will continue to change the nature of crime because it is going to have individuals think their local law enforcement cannot control their community and that they need to help from the military.How this has an impact on criminology is the fact that you have a sample size of two different type of people and that makes it easier to try and explain the reason behind both sides because each side has a vast amount of individuals in the group to use for data collection. This gives criminologists the ability to make theories on why individuals think their side is right and formulate different opinions so people that don’t understand why individuals are doing what they’re doing, they understand the basis of their thinking.Beyond the readings, how does criminological research impact social policy?Looking into how criminological research impacts social policy is because of all the different points of view that go into criminological research. Looking into the different types of criminology, there are three types. Conservative criminology which identifies that people who break the law are somehow psychologically or morally defective. (Barlow & Kauzlarich, 2010, p. 10) Liberal criminology which is the way society is organized or way people acquire social attributes (Barlow & Kauzlarich, 2010, p. 11). Critical criminology which calls for change in economics, cultural, and political structure (Barlow & Kauzlarich, 2010, p. 12) In today’s social policy, the government sways more towards conservative and liberal criminology because when people commit certain crimes, sometimes society wants to label them as mentally unstable. Also, they will say that is the way they were raised and that was the way they were told was the correct way to live. So, it includes both aspects of criminology into the social system. When looking at all theories that are included in criminological research, it labels everyone in society in a different group and explains how everyone works in a society and how everybody lives their life. Without having these theories, it does not allow researchers to come up with models that explain how society works and how people are supposed to follow the rules that are set place by the government. With the right facts, and the right system in place, it allows these models to record the correct data and it allows us as human beings to understand why people are the way that they are. Like Parsons says, “For a theory to be fruitful, it is essential that we have research techniques which provide the right kind of facts” (Parsons, p. 19). This means that researchers need to collect correct data for the population to understand the facts behind their findings because if the information is incorrect, it portrays the population a certain way which could in fact could cause turmoil in certain areas. What this means is that if a certain area was giving inaccurate data about crime, then the government or local agencies will put that area on a more watchable notice because of the data that was received. This causes the people in that area to start to worry that the community they live in is dangerous or not suitable to live in, when in fact the data that was inaccurate. If the correct data is given, then it shows the reality of the situation and it allows the government to implement the corrects sanctions on areas in need of them. This is why criminological research is so important to social policy because it allows the correct actions to be laid out and doesn’t’ put people in harm’s way when they should have no reason to worry. There is a big issue when it comes to criminological research theories and social policy. Which is the fact that certain people who are put into groups (such as homelessness), it makes them feel like they need to commit crime to have stability. Austin calls is a “culture of poverty” and the main features of that statement is the governments negative attitudes towards learning and achieving, lack of self-reliance, poor labor force attachment (Austin, 2004, p. 90). Why this causing the issue in the homeless community is that the government creates programs for the homeless that tries to go above and beyond too help but whenever someone tries to improve their live, the government doesn’t do enough to help that individual succeed. So, they turn to drug abuse, and start committing crimes because they know that it will provide a roof over their heads and food in the mouth. This shows us that society needs criminological research to collect data and push out theories, so that the government can fix social policy to better individuals that need help.ReferencesChunn, D. E., & Menzies, R. (2006). “So what does all of this have to do with Criminology?”: Surviving the Restructuring of the Discipline in the Twenty-First Century(5th issue., Vol. 48). doi: 10.1353/ccj.2006.0047Lefree, G., Bursik, R. J., Short, J., & Taylor, R. B. (2000). The Changing Nature of Crime in America. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/criminal_justice2000/vol_1/02a.pdfBarlow, H. D., & Kauzlarich, D. (2010). Explaining Crime : A Primer in Criminological Theory. Retrieved from https://web-a-ebscohost-com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/ehost/ebookviewer/ebook?sid=1e415574-e747-4c99-815d-26c90d6de027@sdc-v-sessmgr01&vid=0&format=EBParsons, T. (n.d.). The Role of Theory in Social Research. Retrieved from https://web-b-ebscohost-com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=48920493-72cf-4814-a7ba-808c2ad49066@pdc-v-sessmgr06&bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPWlwJnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=12771271&db=tshAustin, A. (2004). Public Assistance and the Pressure to Commit Crime: An Empirical Challenge to Conservative Criminology. Retrieved from https://web-b-ebscohost-com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=6&sid=19a63979-284d-43dc-9dd3-a0e2d254ad03@pdc-v-sessmgr053rd Student Kaleb SalazarGreetings Class,What an interesting topic this week. Being that I am new to the world of criminal justice, I appreciate that this is where we are expected to start. I found this weeks reading on the theories of criminology really fascinating and informative. Without getting too deep into each individual theory, as I am sure we will later, I love that there is no black and white good for all situations theory. Each has its merits and I can see the value of each. More specifically, I found that the theory of liberal criminology seems to be a bit more applicable since its inception in the late 30s and 40s (Barlow, 2009). 1. What impact does the changing nature of crime have on criminology? Please be sure to provide at least one real life example to help illustrate/support your comments.As everyone in this class is aware, crime has changed drastically throughout the years. In the early years of our modern civilization crime consisted of acts of oppression, exploitation and violent acts. Essentially, people enacting their will on people where there were victims and perpetrators. Fast forward to today and crime takes on a myriad of faces. We see that what we view as crime has changed. If we look at the use and sale of cannabis, 10 years ago anyone using this product was a criminal. Today nearly anyone of legal age can walk into a store and legally purchase a variety of cannabis products for recreational use. Understanding the different theories of criminology will allow us to move forward into the future crime with the tool necessary to keep an objective mind. I once thought cannabis was a bad thing simply because it was illegal. Now, I understand that it has its uses for those that partake legally. Another interesting idea where criminology factors into the changing landscape of crime is the digital landscape. In the last twenty years there have been countless advancements in cyber crime that warrant the need for a new branch of criminological study as deemed by the launch of the Cyber Criminological Journal in 2007 (Jaishankar, 2010). Another, even more interesting consideration should be in realm of criminal ethics and how its studied by criminology. I’d be interested to hear what others think about how crimes like cloning, unapproved stem cell therapies, and psychedelic treatments impact criminology in the coming future.2. Going beyond the weekly readings, and supporting your comments with a real life example, how does (or can) criminological research impact social policy?How does criminology research impact social policy? Ideally, in every way. What’s interesting about both criminology and social policy is that they so seamlessly work together. Criminology is about understanding crime, its causes, prevention, and correction. Social policy is about improving the welfare of people within a society. When looking at the purpose of the two it is obvious how they correlate. They should be working hand in hand to create quality policies to mitigate, and prevent crime in a social system (Knepper, 2007). In a healthy society, the governing body should be well versed in criminology as to ensure the health and success of new policy. If a new policy is implemented without considering criminological factors, a new policy could actually cause more harm to a society than good by opening that society to a host of criminal opportunities. References:Barlow, H. D., & Kauzlarich, D. (2009). Explaining crime : A primer in criminological theory. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.comJaishankar, K. (2010). The Future of Cyber Criminology: Challenges and Opportunities1Knepper, P. (2007). Criminology and social policy. Sage.