Both the Pluralist tradition (Dahl) and the Sociological tradition (Weber & Mills) are grappling with Marx and Marxism. In the second half of the course we have built our understanding of the Marxist tradition: M&E, Lenin, Gramsci, Althusser, and Block. This essay has two parts: First you need to briefly summarize the Marxist tradition. What is the state for M&E? How does Lenin building upon their understanding? What is the State for Lenin? What are the contradictions of the Capitalist State that Lenin points out? How does Gramsci highlight and elaborate this? What is Gramsci’s alternative theory of the State? How do Althusser and Block extended ideas of Gramsci? What is the common thread? What are the differences? Second, how do these theorists think of social change under capitalism? What are the differences and similarities between their positions in terms of alternative politics?