Module 3: Discussion Forum One criticism of crime risk analysis is that it leads to racial profiling. Provide an example of a policing strategy that you believe supports this criticism and answer the following questions: (1) What makes this strategy appear discriminatory; (2) how can the strategy be altered to help policy identify crime risks more fairly and effectively? Be sure to support your statements with logic and argument, citing any sources referenced Criminal Justice Policy Development and Analysis Module 3: Crime Prevention and Policing Policies In the first part of this module, we will discuss ways that police can prevent crime. The earlier policing strategies, applying the same resources to all geographic locations regardless of need, have been replaced with strategies that allocate resources to areas with concentrations of crime. These areas have become known as hotspots of crime. We will explore the various crime prevention strategies that are proactive, rather than reactive, to crime reduction. Through the manipulation of the environment, hardening of targets, crime can be stopped before it starts. These methods are based on routine activities theory, which states that for crime to occur three elements must exist in space and time: a motivated offender must come into contact with a suitable target in the absence of a capable guardian; and rational choice theory which states that crime will be committed if the reward for the crime outweighs the risk. By hardening targets, making victimization more difficult, the risk for the crime (i.e., getting caught) will outweigh the reward. Lastly, we will examine ways in which both elected officials and police can build fairer policing strategies. When policing strategies are used in a heavy-handed and discriminatory way, the legitimacy of the police is called into question damaging relationship with the communities these agencies serve to protect. To restore legitimacy, it is important to build policing strategies that are seen as fair and interactions with the public are based on respect. We will assess the different methods by which police can build trust and respect including the use of restorative practices between police and citizens and/or offenders. Learning Outcomes Discuss crime prevention strategies and policies. Examine police strategies to reduce crime. Evaluate efforts by elected official to build more fair and effective policing. Assess the ways in which police can build trust and respect. For Your Success & Readings You have a bit more assigned reading this week than in most other weeks, so it is best to get a start on them as early in the week as you can. The topics in this module may be of great interest to you as they have relevance to our everyday lives—how we go about our daily routines and ways that we can protect our property from victimization. Here are some reminders that will help you achieve success in this module and the course in general: Review the Discussion Question and make your substantive posting as early in the week as possible. Remember that you should cite to the course materials/readings or other outside research in the initial post (at a minimum but certainly in any follow-up comments as well). Make sure to post two equally substantive replies to two of your fellow classmates’ responses before Sunday at midnight. Comments posted after Sunday at midnight will not be accepted for credit. Engage with the assigned and recommended readings. Review the Portfolio Project and determine which option you would like to submit in Week 8. Prepare a summary of the policy you are considering for your project. In your summary, please provide the name of the policy you have chosen as well as the summary, including a brief summary of the findings (For example, if researching drug courts—what types of cases do they accept; what is the rate of recidivism for that have been through drug court; etc.). Reach out to your instructor with any questions regarding course material or for assistance with questions regarding your portfolio milestone. Required Chapters 7, 8, 9, 10, & 11 in Advancing Criminology & Criminal Justice Policy Recommended Telep, C. (2016). Expanding the scope of evidence-based policing. Criminology & Public Policy, 15(1), 243-250. Weisburd, D., Braga, A., Groff, E., & Wooditch, A. (2017). Can hot spots policing reduce crime in Urban areas? An agent-based simulation. Criminology, 55(1), 137-173. Next References Famartin. (2016, April 22). Neighborhood Watch sign along Allness Lane in the Chantilly Highlands section of Oak Hill, Fairfax County, Virginia [Image file]. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2016-04-22_13_06_14_Neighborhood_Watch_sign_along_Allness_Lane_in_the_Chantilly_Highlands_section_of_Oak_Hill,_Fairfax_County,_Virginia.jpg. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International Sampson, R., Raudenbush, S., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multi-level study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, 918-924. Sherman, L. (1989). Hot spots of predatory crime: Routine activities and the criminology of place. Criminology 27(1), 27-56. Sherman, L. (1990). Police crackdowns: Initial and residual deterrence. In Tonry, M. & Morris, N. (Eds.). Crime and Justice: Annual Review of Research, 12, 1-48. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Sherman, L. (1995). Hot spots of crime and criminal careers of places. In Wilson, J., & Petersilia, J. (Eds.). Crime: Public policies for crime control (2nd ed.). Oxford, U. K.: Oxford University Press. Critical Thinking Assignment: Overly Punitive Policies? (110 Points) Important! Read First Choose one of the following two assignments to complete this week. Do not do both assignments. Identify your assignment choice in the title of your submission. Option #1 Criminal justice policies have been criticized as being overly punitive compared to other nations. Critics believe that our system focuses too heavily on incarceration rather than on prevention. Prepare a paper that supports a system that shifts from punitive to prevention. In your paper, provide a rationale for a prevention-based approach; discuss how prevention-based policies would differ from the state’s current policies which are based on punishment. Please refer to scholarly research and policy studies to support your approach. Your paper should be well-written, 3-4 pages in length, and formatted per CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA Requirements (Links to an external site.). Your paper should utilize at least three credible resources for support. Option #2 The prison population has more than doubled over the last decade. Supporters of incarceration believe these policies have succeeded in lowering crime rates. Opponents of incarceration state that the only achievements of these policies is that we have the highest rates of incarceration in the world and offenders have longer sentences. Which argument do you support and why?